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Hart, Betty & Risley, Todd R. “The Early Catastrophe: the 30 Million Word Gap by Age 3 (PDF).” American Educator, Spring. 4-9 (2003). Web. 17 Sept. 2015.

  • Betty Hart and Todd Risley visited 42 families from various socio-economic backgrounds.
  • Assessed how daily exchanges between parent and child shape language and vocabulary development.
  • Follow-up studies showed that differences in language and interaction experiences have lasting effects on a child’s performance later in life. 

Lawson, K. “The real power of parental reading aloud: exploring the affective and attentional dimensions.”  Australian Journal of Education, 56.3 (2012): 257+. Academic OneFile. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.

  • Theories of language development illuminate the auditory dimension of literacy.
  • Parental reading aloud is an indicator of children’s later academic success.
  • Uninterrupted listening to narratives helps children develop auditory attention systems. 

Lempke, Susan Dove. "Early literacy and series nonfiction." Booklist 1 Oct. 2009: 56+. General OneFile. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.

  • Series nonfiction books help feed preschoolers’ insatiable need to learn.
  • Transportation, animals and shapes are popular topics.
  • Nonfiction comes in large picture books, smaller books with larger type, and board books. 

Wasik, Barbara A., and Annemarie H. Hindman. “Talk alone won't close the 30-million word gap: research shows that the youngest children best learn words--the foundation for all learning yet to come--through repeated exposure and open-ended conversations with adults.”  Phi Delta Kappan, 96.6 (2015): 50. General OneFile. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.

  • A substantial vocabulary gap separates more and less affluent children.
  • By third grade, children with a word gap show lower performance in vocabulary, language development and reading comprehension.
  • Research describes principles for vocabulary learning, such as repeated exposure to new words and connecting a word’s meaning to their own experiences. 

imls180.for.panel.jpgMany of these resources and programs are funded under the provisions of the Library Services and Technology Act from the Institute of Museum and Library Services. Florida's LSTA program is administered by the Department of State's Division of Library and Information Services.