Where can I learn more?
Publications and Web Sites
Documentation Methodologies and Preservation/Conservation Information
The American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. Guidelines for Selecting a Conservator and Code of Ethics. Information to assist in selecting "a qualified conservator who can provide sound, ethical preservation services for art objects, artifacts, and other items of historic and cultural value." Available from the AIC, 1400 Sixteenth Street, N.W., Suite 340, Washington, D.C. 20036.
The Association for Gravestone Studies. Kit of Gravestone Preservation Information (includes Cleaning Masonry Burial Monuments, Making Photographic Records of Gravestones, Recording Cemetery Data, The Care of Old Cemeteries and Gravestones, Recommendations for the Care of Gravestones, Cemeteries Listed in the National Register, Photographing Gravestones, How to Create a New Base, and Reading Weathered Marble Gravestones). For details and ordering information, contact The Association for Gravestone Studies, 278 Main St., Greenfield, MA 01301 (413-772-0836 or [email protected]).
The Association for Gravestone Studies. Kit of Information Leaflets. (includes Analyzing Cemetery Data, Symbolism in Carvings on Gravestones, Gravestone Rubbing for Beginners, Techniques for the Experienced Rubber, Basic Guide to Carver Research, Model Legislation, Making Replicas, Guide to Forming a Cemetery Friends Organization, Discussion and Research Topics (for educators) and What do you do when you Find a "Lost" Gravestone). For details and ordering information, contact The Association for Gravestone Studies, 278 Main St., Greenfield, MA 01301 (413-772-0836 or [email protected]).
The Association for Gravestone Studies Computer Database. A database with search/report capability designed for recording gravestones and cemeteries. Works with Windows 95, 98, 2000, XP and 3.1. For details and ordering information, contact The Association for Gravestone Studies, 278 Main St., Greenfield, MA 01301 (413-772-0836 or [email protected]).
Baker, F. Joanne, Daniel Farber and Anne G. Giesecke. "Recording Cemetery Data.' Markers I (1980): 99-117. An early "how-to" guide for recording information about gravemarkers, this article describes the essential steps in providing accurate and reliable documentation for research.
Birnbaum, Charles A. Preservation Briefs 36 - Protecting Cultural Landscapes: Planning, Treatment and Management of Historic Landscapes. Preservation Assistance, National Park Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, 1994. "Historic landscapes [including cemeteries] . . . are composed of a number of character-defining features which individually or collectively contribute to the landscapes' physical appearance as they have evolved over time . . . . This Preservation Brief provides preservation professionals, cultural resource managers, and historic property owners a step-by-step process for preserving historic designed and vernacular landscapes . . . [and] provides a framework and guidance for undertaking projects to ensure a successful balance between historic preservation and change."
Bowles, Oliver. The Stone Industries. New York & London, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 1934. Scholarly discourse on the origins and properties of various types of stone, including those (marble, limestone, etc.) commonly used for gravemarkers in cemeteries in the southeastern United States.
"Bronze Corrosion and Outdoor Pollution." NCPTT Notes, No. 27, October 1998. Published in a newsletter of the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training; discusses causes of bronze corrosion and methods of preservation, presents results of four studies conducted by NCPTT on "pollutant effects on ornamental and sculptural bronze."
Cohen, Diane and A. Robert Jaeger. Strategies for the Stewardship and Active Use of Older and Historic Religious Properties. (One in a series of Historic Preservation Information Booklets), National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1996. "This booklet serves as a guide to the problems and opportunities facing those who care about the future of America's older and historic religious properties. . . . Because someone from one religious tradition may know little about the way congregations in other traditions are organized . . . the booklet is intended for a broad spectrum of preservation, religious, and community leaders. . . . A great deal of space is devoted to fund raising and capital campaigns because this challenge is of great concern to congregations that come to preservation organizations for assistance."
Freed, Elaine. "Cast Iron Fences." The Old House Journal. December 1974: 9-11. Describes cast iron fence styles popular during the Victorian period and gives guidelines for the care and repair of ornamental iron.
Grimmer, Anne E. A Glossary of Historic Masonry Deterioration Problems and Preservation Treatments. Heritage Preservation Services, National Park Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, 1997. Sixty-five page booklet "intended as a general reference and interpretive tool to provide an explanation of all terms likely to be used to describe conditions of masonry deterioration and repair techniques and treatments to preserve historic masonry."
Grimmer, Anne E. Keeping it Clean: Removing Exterior Dirt, Paint, Stains and Graffiti from Historic Masonry Buildings. Washington, D C: Preservation Assistance Division, National Park Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, 1988. "The purpose of this technical report is to provide information on removing dirt, stains, paint and related coatings, graffiti, and other disfiguring or potentially harmful substances from exterior masonry" [includes stone, brick, terra cotta, stucco and concrete].
Jewell, Linda. "Ornamental Iron, Part I: Wrought Iron," Landscape Architecture. March/April 1987: 97-100 and "Ornamental Iron, Part II, Cast Iron," Landscape Architecture. July/August 1987: 93-95. Provides succinct histories of wrought and cast iron, describes forging and casting techniques, discusses the current state of the art.
Jones, Mary Ellen. Photographing Tombstones: Equipment and Techniques. Technical leaflet 92. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History, 1977.
Keller, Timothy and Genevieve P. Keller. National Register Bulletin 18: How to Evaluate and Nominate Designed Historic Landscapes. National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, U. S. Department of Interior, 1987. "Intended to guide Federal agencies, State Preservation Offices, Certified Local Governments, preservation professional and interested individuals in identifying, evaluating, and nominating designed historic landscapes to the National Register of Historic Places."
Newman, John J. Cemetery Transcribing: Preparation and Procedures. Technical Leaflet 9. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History, 1971.
O'Donnell, Eleanor. National Register Bulletin 39: Researching a Historic Property. National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, 1994. The purpose of this bulletin is to introduce the beginner to some basic sources and techniques for the collection of data for nominating a historic property to the National Register of Historic Places.
Potter, Elisabeth Walton and Beth M. Boland. National Register Bulletin 41: Guidelines for Evaluating and Registering Cemeteries and Burial Places. National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, 1992. Intended to "guide Federal agencies, State historic preservation offices, Certified Local Governments, preservation professionals, and interested groups and individuals in evaluating, documenting, and nominating cemeteries, burial places and related types of property to the National Register." This publication can also be accessed at www.cr.nps.gov/nr/publications/bulletins/nrb41/nrb41_11.htm
Strangstad, Lynette. A Graveyard Preservation Primer. Nashville: The American Association for State and Local History, 1988. Remains the most comprehensive and popular guide for preserving and restoring historic burial sites; gives information about care of stone fragments, cleaning and resetting gravestones, and maintaining historical aspects of cemeteries.
Strangstad, Lynette. Preservation of Historic Burying Grounds (One in a series of Historic Preservation Information Booklets), National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1995. Offers basic knowledge of the field of cemetery preservation to help organizations and individuals understand the significance of historic burial grounds and to recognize methods appropriate to their conservation; discusses project organization, plan development, maintenance and acceptable conservation treatments.
"Studies in Biodeterioration of Cultural Resources" and "Biodeterioration of Stone: What Do We Know?" NCPTT Notes, No. 22, January 1998. These articles, published in a newsletter of the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, define biodeterioration as "undesirable changes in a material caused by living organisms." Details the debate among conservators about stone deterioration and discusses methods of combating biodeterioration problems.
Thompson, Sharyn. Florida's Historic Cemeteries: A Preservation Handbook. Historic Tallahassee Preservation Board, 1989. Designed to assist individuals and organizations concerned with the identification and preservation of historic cemeteries. Includes the value of historic cemeteries, guidelines and methodology for survey and research, and appropriate preservation techniques to be used in restoration efforts. The booklet was revised in 2004 and is available online as a PDF.
Sherwood, Susan Ingrid. Recognizing Types of Stone Decay. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, April 1995. Prepared for use in stone conservation workshops conducted by the National Park Service; this paper provides a thorough discussion of the weathering processes that affect stone.
Florida and General Information
Coomes, Charles S. "Tolomato Cemetery." El Escribano 13 (1976): 107-38.
Deagan, Kathleen A. Spanish St. Augustine: The Archaeology of a Colonial Creole Community. New York: Academic Press, 1983.
Deetz, James and Edwin S. Dethlefsen. "Death's Head, Cherub, Urn and Willow." Natural History 76(3): 29-37. The classic discussion of how gravestone motifs reflect distinctive times periods and social attitudes. Although the research was conducted in New England, the methodology is adaptable to cemeteries everywhere.
Dethlefsen, Edwin S. "The Cemetery and Culture Change: Archaeological Focus and Ethnographic Perspective." Modern Material Culture: The Archaeology of Us. (Ed. Richard A. Gould and Michael B. Schiffer). New York: Academic Press, 1981: 137-59. Discussion of how gravestones from different time periods give information about a community; the author studied four cemeteries in Alachua County, Florida, which he determined "to be three distinctive forms of community."
Edwards, Lucy Ames. "Stories in Stone: A Study of Duval County Gravemarkers." Florida Historical Quarterly 35.4 (1956-57): 116-29.
Ellsworth, Lucius F. and Jane E. Dysart. "West Florida's Forgotten People: The Creek Indians from 1830 Until 1970." Florida Historical Quarterly 59.4 (April 1981): 422-39.
Jeane, D. Gregory. "The Upland South Folk Cemetery Complex: Some Suggestions of Origin." Cemeteries and Gravemarkers: Voices of American Culture. Ed. Richard E. Meyer. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1989. 107-36.
Jeane, Gregory. "Rural Southern Gravestones: Sacred Artifacts in the Upland South." Markers IV (1987): 55-84.
Koch, Joan K. "The Nuestra Senora de la Soledad Site: A Cemetery, Hospital and Church in Spanish Colonial St. Augustine." Master's Thesis. Florida State University, 1980.
Meier, Lauren G. and Betsy Chittenden. Preserving Historic Landscapes, An Annotated Bibliography. Washington, D C: Preservation Assistance Division, National Park Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, 1990.
Messer, Stephen C. "Go Forward: Attitudes toward Death in Tallahassee, 1880-1893." Apalachee 10 (1991): 100-11.
Nichols, Elaine (editor). The Last Miles of the Way: Traditions, 1890-Present. Columbia: South Carolina State Museum, 1989. Companion catalog to a museum exhibit that centered on African American funeral and mourning customs, the book includes articles, commentary and a selected bibliography.
Nigh, Robin Franklin. "Under Grave Conditions: African-American Signs of Life and Death in North Florida. Markers XIV (1997).
Piper, Harry M, K. W. Hardin, and J. G. Piper. "Cultural Responses to Stress: Patterns Observed i˜American Indian Burials of the Second Seminole War." Southeastern Archaeology 1.2 (1982): 122-37.
Stokes, Sherrie. "Gone But Not Forgotten: Wakulla County's Folk Graveyards." Florida Historical Quarterly 70.2 (1991): 177-91.
Thompson, Sharyn. "These Works of Mortuary Masonry: The Aboveground Tombs of St. Michael Cemetery, Pensacola, Florida." The Southern Quarterly 31:2 (Winter 1993): 50-73.
Bell, Edward L. Vestiges of Mortality & Remembrance: A Bibliography on the Historical Archaeology of Cemeteries. Metuchen, N. J. and London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1994. This book "is the first comprehensive reference work on the historical archaeology of mortuary sites . . . includes citations to archaeological investigations at historical cemeteries and the physical and forensic anthropology of historic period remains dating from the 15th through the 20th centuries. Also included are pertinent references to comparative literature on the history of death, mourning, memorialization, and burial; studies of grave markers and cemetery landscapes; and legal and ethical discussions regarding sepulcher, curation, and repatriation of human remains and funerary objects."
Meier, Lauren G. and Betsy Chittenden. Preserving Historic Landscapes, An Annotated Bibliography. Washington, D C: National Park Service, Preservation Assistance Division, 1990.
Nichols, Elaine (editor). "Selected Bibliography." In The Last Miles of the Way: African- American Homegoing Traditions, 1890-Present. Columbia: South Carolina State Museum, 1989: 62-63. Included as part of the catalog that accompanied a museum exhibit on African American funeral and mourning customs; a selection of resources covering both African American and African burial practices.
Thompson, Sharyn (compiler). Historic African American and African Caribbean Cemeteries: A Selected Bibliography. Tallahassee: The Center for Historic Cemeteries Preservation, 1997. Compiled to assist persons interested in the historical interpretation and preservation of African American and African Caribbean cemeteries, to promote understanding and appreciation of the sites, and to encourage their documentation and protection. This publication is available online as a PDF.
Thompson, Sharyn, Joey Brackner and Alfred E. Lemmon (compilers). "Historic Cemeteries in the Southern United States: A Preliminary Bibliography" The Southern Quarterly 31.2 (Winter 1993): 133-146. (Special issue, The Southern Cemetery, Alfred E. Lemmon, guest editor). Prepared for this special issue of the SQ, the bibliography was not meant to include all materials relating to cemeteries in the Southeast, but rather lists references which the authors agreed were appropriate for use in interpreting and preserving historical burying grounds in the southeastern United States.
Preservation & Conservation Organizations, State and National Agencies
The Alliance for Historic Landscape Preservation is a national organization of professionals who are involved with the preservation of historic landscapes, including cemeteries. The Alliance for Historic Landscape Preservation, 82 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. ahlp.org
The American Institute for Conservation of Historic & Artistic Works is the national organization of conservation professionals which sponsors conferences and publishes and sells a variety of conservation-related periodicals. Its nonprofit Foundation of the American Institute for Conservation (FAIC) offers educational programs, grants to conservators, and a referral system. A general bibliography on conservation is available on request. The American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC) and FAIC Conservation Services Referral System, 1400 16th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 (202-232-6636). https://www.culturalheritage.org
The Association for Gravestone Studies was established to further the study and preservation of gravestones. The membership organization is a clearing house for information about early burial grounds and offers a variety of publications, including the journal, Markers. It holds an annual conference with workshops and field trips. The Association for Gravestone Studies, 278 Main Street, Greenfield, MA 01301 (413-722-0836) [email protected]tonestudies.org and gravestonestudies.org
The National Center for Preservation Technology and Training advances of the practice of historic preservation in the fields of archaeology, architecture, landscape architecture, materials conservation and history. Publishes a newsletter with articles about preservation and materials conservation issues that are often applicable to cemetery projects. NCPTT, U. S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, NSU Box 5682, Natchitoches, LA 71497. ncptt.nps.gov
The National Trust for Historic Preservation mission is to foster an appreciation of the diverse character and meaning of our American cultural heritage and to preserve and revitalize the livability of our communities by leading the nation in saving America's historic environments. Support for the National Trust is provided in part by matching grants from the US Department of Interior, National Park Service, under provisions of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. The headquarters of the National Trust is located at 1785 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036. The Trust's Southern Office is located at 456 King Street, Charleston, SC 29403 (843-722-8552). nationaltrust.org
Partners for Sacred Places is dedicated to the sound stewardship and active use of America's older and historic religious properties. It provides an information clearinghouse, training and consulting services to clergy, congregations, preservationists and community leaders. Partners for Sacred Places, 1700 Sansom Street, 10th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19103, (215-567-3234) sacredplaces.org
Technical Preservation Services provides workshops, technical assistance and a variety of publications on preservation and conservation. National Park Service, Technical Preservation Services, 1849 C Street NW, Mail Stop 7243, Washington, D.C. 20240 (202-513-7270). https://www.nps.gov/tps/index.htm
Florida's State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) is the official liaison between state government and persons involved with historic preservation issues in the state. In Florida, the SHPO is also Director of the Florida Department of State's Division of Historical Resources. In the Division are the Bureaus of Archaeological Research (Unmarked Human Remains), and Historic Preservation (Florida Master Site File, National Register of Historic Places, Preservation Grants, and State Historical Marker Program). Contact: Florida State Historic Preservation Officer, Division of Historical Resources, R. A. Gray Building, 500 South Bronough Street, Tallahassee, FL 32399-0250 (850.245.6300). dos.myflorida.com/historical
Genealogy/Cemetery Websites for Florida interment.net/us/fl
These websites contain information about Florida cemeteries arranged by county. They also have histories, maps, census records and gravemarker transcriptions, as well as links to many other cemetery and genealogy websites.
Florida State Archives
This website allows you to search the Florida State Archives.
Provides information on Florida cemetery preservation law, "endangered" cemeteries in the state, a Florida cemeteries index, and links to various historic cemetery websites.
Florida Funeral Directors
Florida's professional association of funeral directors is active in such issues as licensing, public education, professional development, legislation, and communication.